Tuesday, October 30, 2007

For the Wikipedia policy about articles layout, see Wikipedia:Guide to layout.
Layout may refer to:
Automobile layout
Comprehensive layout
Integrated circuit layout
Keyboard layout
Page layout
Web layout
In gymnastics, a layout is a position in which the gymnast's body is completely stretched, toes pointed and legs straight. A layout in tumbling, vault or balance beam is a salto performed in this position. In some countries, layout saltos are referred to as 'straights.' (ie, "he performed a double straight")
In computer software, a layout is the arrangement of the widgets in a graphical user interface (see Layout manager)
In computer programming language syntax, layout is an alternative name for the off-side rule
In computer graphics, a layout is another name for a scene (computer graphics) used to render 2D/3D graphics/animation
In ultimate (sport), a layout is an attempt to catch the disc involving a jump that results in a horizontal landing
Model railroad layout, model railroads are often referred to as layouts

Monday, October 29, 2007

The Param Vir Chakra (PVC) is India's highest military decoration awarded for the highest degree of valour or self-sacrifice in the presence of the enemy. It may be awarded posthumously and, indeed, most of the awards have been posthumous.
Literally, Param Vir means Bravest of the Brave (Sanskrit: Parama = Highest; Vīra (Pronounced veer) = Brave (warrior); Chakra = wheel but it can also mean medal, depending to the context).
The PVC was established on 26 January 1950 (the date of India becoming a republic), by the President of India, with effect from 15 August 1947 (the date of Indian independence). It can be awarded to officers or enlisted personnel from all branches of the Indian military. It is the second highest award of the government of India after Bharat Ratna (amendment in the statute on 26 January 1980 resulted in this order of wearing). It replaced the former British colonial Victoria Cross (VC), (see List of Indian Victoria Cross recipients).
Provision was made for the award of a bar for second (or subsequent) awards of the Param Vir Chakra. To date, there have been no such awards. Award of the decoration carries with it the right to use P.V.C. as a postnominal abbreviation.
The award also carries a cash allowance for those under the rank of lieutenant (or the appropriate service equivalent) and, in some cases, a cash award. On the death of the recipient, the pension is transferred to the widow until her death or remarriage. The paltry amount of the pension has been a rather controversial issue throughout the life of the decoration. By March 1999, the stipend stood at Rs. 1500 per month. In addition, many states have established individual pension rewards that far exceeds the central government's stipend for the recipients of the decoration.
Subedar Major Bana Singh of the Eighth Jammu and Kashmir Light Infantry was the only serving personnel of the Indian defence establishment with a Param Vir Chakra till the Kargil operations.

Param Vir Chakra Decorated personnel

In 1990, a TV Series was aired on the Indian National Channel DD National titled Param Vir Chakra. The tele-series was made by noted film maker Chetan Anand and ran for 15 episodes.
A number of noted celebrities participated in the series. Film actor Farooq Shaikh played Somnath Sharma, Puneet Issar played Nk Jadunath Singh, Vijayendra Ghatge played Lance Naik Karam Singh, Naseeruddin Shah played Abdul Hamid. Anu Kapoor played Albert Ekka.
The serial received full support from the Indian Armed Forces. The Army and the Air Force provided all the equipment for the shooting.
The title track Shaan teri kabhi kam na ho (May your honour never decrease) was a much famous track during those days. Trivia

Sunday, October 28, 2007

National team caps and goals correct as of 22 February 2007.Essam El-Hadary * Appearances (Goals)
Essam El-Hadary (Arabic: عصام الحضري) (born January 15, 1973) is an Egyptian footballer. He is known as "The High Dam" to fans.
He plays the Goalkeeper position for Egypt's African Super Cup Championship club Al-Ahly as well as Egypt's National Football Team. He is considered one of the best African goalkeepers, and he has been chosen the Best Goalkeeper in African Cup of Nations Egypt 2006. He started playing professionly for Egyption club Damietta before transferring to Al-Ahly in 1996.

Best African Goalkeeper
National Team

Winner of African Cup of Nations Egypt 2006.
Winner of African Cup of Nations Burkina Faso 1998.
Bronze Medalist at FIFA Club World Cup 2006
Winner of CAF Champions League 2006.
Winner of CAF Champions League 2005.
Winner of CAF Champions League 2001.
Winner of Egyptian League(2007-2006).
Winner of Egyptian League(2006-2005).
Winner of Egyptian League(2005-2004).
Winner of Egyptian League(2000-1999).
Winner of Egyptian League(1999-1998).
Winner of Egyptian League(1998-1997).
Winner of Egyptian League(1997-1996).
Winner of CAF Super Cup (2007).
Winner of CAF Super Cup (2006).
Winner of CAF Super Cup (2002).
Winner of Egyptian Soccer Cup (2007).
Winner of Egyptian Soccer Cup (2006).
Winner of Egyptian Soccer Cup (2003).
Winner of Egyptian Soccer Cup (2001).
Winner of Egyptian Super Cup(2006).
Winner of Egyptian Super Cup(2005).
Winner of Egyptian Super Cup(2003).
Best Goalkeeper in African Cup of Nations Egypt 2006.
2006 CAF Best African goalkeeper.

Saturday, October 27, 2007

Robert Darcy, 4th Earl of Holderness
Robert Darcy, 4th Earl of Holderness PC (17 May 171816 May 1778), known before 1721 as Lord Darcy and Conyers, was a British diplomatist and politician. From 1744 to 1746 he was ambassador at Venice and from 1749 to 1751 he represented his country at The Hague. In 1751 he became Secretary of State for the Southern Department, transferring in 1754 to the Northern Department, and he remained in office until March 1761, when he was dismissed by King George III in favor of Lord Bute, although he had largely been a cipher in that position to the stronger personalities of his colleagues, successively the Duke of Newcastle, Thomas Robinson, Henry Fox, and William Pitt the Elder. From 1771 to 1776 he acted as governor to two of the King's sons, a solemn phantom as Horace Walpole calls him. He left no sons, and all his titles became extinct except the Baronies of Darcy (de Knayth) and Conyers, which were Baronies by Writ. In those peerages he was succeeded by his daughter, Amelia Osborne, Marchioness of Carmarthen.

Friday, October 26, 2007

The Fox News Channel (FNC) is a United States-based cable and satellite news channel. It is owned by the Fox Entertainment Group, and is a subsidiary of Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation. As of January 2005, it is available to 85 million households in the U.S. and further to viewers internationally, broadcasting primarily out of its New York City studios.
The network was launched on October 7, 1996



Main article: Fox News Channel programming Television
Like other news networks, Fox News Channel produces a news website featuring the latest coverage of news stories, including video clips from the network's television division, audio clips from Fox News Radio, in addition to columns from the network's assorted television, radio, and online personalities. Introduced in December 1995, the network's website ranks below many other news websites, ranking in the lower teens in the list of top news websites.


Main article: Fox News Radio Radio

Main article: Fox News Channel personalities Personalities
Fox News currently leads the cable news market in the United States, earning higher points ratings than its chief competitors CNN and MSNBC combined by average viewership.


Main article: Fox News Channel controversies Controversies
Fox News has been accused of promoting a conservative, right-wing, or Republican point of view at the expense of neutrality.

Accusations of bias
As with many news sources, Fox News executives exert a degree of editorial control over the content of their daily reporting. In the case of Fox News, some of this control comes in the form of daily memos issued by Fox News' Vice President of News, John Moody. Critics of Fox News cite these memos as evidence of a conservative bias in Fox News reporting, and claim that information in these memos duplicates Republican talking points.

Internal memos
In 2003, Penguin Books published Lies and the Lying Liars Who Tell Them: A Fair and Balanced Look at the Right, by comedian and Democratic writer Al Franken. The book criticized a number of persons and institutions, but singled out Fox with allegations of conservative bias. Before the book was released, Fox brought a lawsuit, alleging that the book's subtitle violated Fox's trademark on the promotional phrase "Fair and Balanced." On that basis, Fox moved for a preliminary injunction to block the publication of the book. The United States District Court Judge hearing the case denied the motion, causing Fox to withdraw the suit.
In December 2003, the Independent Media Institute brought a petition before the United States Patent and Trademark Office seeking the cancellation of Fox's trademark of the phrase "Fair & Balanced," on the grounds that is is "notoriously misdescriptive."

Trademark disputes
The channel is available internationally, though its world programming is identical to its American programming (with the exception of Fox News Extra breakfillers), unlike CNN International, which airs regional programming that is almost entirely independent of its U.S. broadcasts.

International transmission
Until early 2002, Fox News replaced US advertisements with e-mails from viewers around the world who liked Fox News, as well as profiles of Fox News anchors, set to music. These were never updated and consisted of a small number of such segments. They, in turn, were replaced with international weather forecasts. In 2006, they replaced the weather segments with 'Fox News Extra' segments, various narrated reports from FOX Reports on a variety of topics. These reports are generally on lighter issues not related to current news events, and the segments are repeated. The segments are introduced by various Fox News anchors (mostly headline segment anchors), who in addition to introducing the segment, thank viewers from a chosen international location for watching Fox News.
When Fox News Extra segments run short, international weather forecasts are shown for the remaining duration of the break.
The Fox News feed in the United Kingdom does not feature Fox News Extra, and instead features break fillers from sister channel Sky News's International Variant. For a short period in 2001, a still of the Fox News logo replaced this other content.

Fox News Extra
In Australia Fox News Channel is broadcast on the three major Pay-TV providers, Austar, Optus Television and Foxtel. Foxtel is 25% owned by News Corporation, and the other two are just rebroadcasters of Foxtel content. The Australian syndication previously featured some local programming, including a John Laws current affairs program in place of "Fox & Friends". Local advertisements are aired in place of every second 'Fox News Extra' segment.

On December 14, 2000, the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) approved Fox News Canada on behalf of the Global Television Network, for broadcast in Canada. Fox News Canada was to be a domestic Canadian version of Fox News. On December 16, 2004, Rogers Communications became the first Canadian cable or satellite provider to broadcast Fox News, with other companies following suit within the next several weeks.

Fox News Channel Canada
In New Zealand, Fox News is broadcast on Channel 92 of pay satellite operator Sky TV's digital platform. It is also broadcast overnight on New Zealand TV channel Prime, owned by Sky. Fox News parent corporation News Corp has a stake in both Sky and Prime.

New Zealand
In Sweden and the other Scandinavian countries, Fox News is broadcast on TV8 for some 16 hours a day, since 2003. Fox News Extra segments replace U.S. advertising. However, in September 2006, Fox News was replaced by German news channel Deutsche Welle. This change resulted in Fox News losing all of its coverage in Sweden.

Fox News is also carried in the United Kingdom and Ireland by the British Sky Broadcasting (BSkyB) satellite television network (Sky Digital), in which News Corporation (the largest shareholder) holds a 38 percent stake. It is a sister channel to BSkyB's Sky News, which is more popular in the region and does not carry any such controversy. Fox News is usually broadcast as a VideoGuard encrypted channel but during major news stories it may be simulcast on Sky Active, which is free to air. A fault in certain Pace Micro Sky Digibox receivers, notably the DS-430N which was Sky's default issue for some years, has left them able to decrypt the channel with no active subscription card since March 1, 2006; although no reason is known as to why. As of September 2006 the channel has carried UK specific advertising, along with headlines and weather provided by Sky News between its breaks. These run under the brand of Fox News International.

United Kingdom and Ireland
Fox News Channel is also carried in more than 40 countries. Although service to Japan stopped in the summer of 2003, it can still be seen on Americable (distributor for American bases),

Cayman Islands
Costa Rica
Dominican Republic
Hong Kong
New Zealand
Papua New Guinea
Saudi Arabia
Saint Kitts
Saint Lucia
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Trinidad and Tobago
United Arab Emirates
Venezuela Archive and licensing

Collins, Scott. Crazy Like a Fox: The Inside Story of How Fox News Beat CNN. ISBN 1-59184-029-5. 
FNC Ratings Soar as War in Lebanon Rages. MediaWeek.
"Fox's Smith tops cable news ranks in ratings", Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel. 
"Fox Factor", USA Today. 
Q2 '06: FNC #9 On All Of Cable TV. Media Bistro.

Thursday, October 25, 2007

Francisco Buarque de Hollanda (born June 19, 1944 in Rio de Janeiro), popularly known as Chico Buarque is a Brazilian singer, composer, dramatist and writer. He is best known for his music, which often comments on Brazil's social, economic and cultural reality.

Chico Buarque Biography
During Brazil's military coup of 1964, Chico wrote about the situation and avoided censure by using cryptic analogies and word play. For example, in the song "Cálice" (English: "Goblet" or "Chalice" or "Cup" as used by Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane) he takes advantage of the homophony between the Portuguese words for "shut up" (cale-se) and "goblet" (cálice) to disguise criticism of censorship and oppression as a Bible story:
Lyrics (in Portuguese)

Pai, afasta de mim esse cálice
De vinho tinto de sangue.
Como beber dessa bebida amarga
Tragar a dor, engolir a labuta.
Mesmo calada a boca, resta o peito
Silêncio na cidade não se escuta.
De que me vale ser filho da santa
Melhor seria ser filho da outra
Outra realidade menos morta
Tanta mentira, tanta força bruta.

Father, take from me this cup
of wine tinted red with blood.
How can I drink this bitter drink
Inhale the pain, swallow the drudgery.
Even if the mouth is shut, the heart still remains
Silence isn't heard in the city.
What good is it to me be a son of the saint (Female)
Better to be a son of the other (This breaks the rhyme scheme, after the final "outra" [other] the logical word would be "puta" [bitch/prostitute]).
Another reality less dead
So many lies, so much brute force.

Example of work: Cálice

Caetano Veloso
Elis Regina
Nara Leão
Maria Bethania
Gal Costa
Gilberto Gil
Tom Jobim
Vinicius de Moraes
Edu Lobo Trivia

"A Banda" ("The Band")
"À Flor da Terra" ("At Earth's surface")
"O que Será ("What will be")
"Apesar de Você" ("Despite You")
"As Vitrines" (The Windows)
"Brejo da Cruz" (Cross` bog)
"Bye Bye, Brasil" (Bye Bye, Brazil)
"Carolina" (Caroline)
"Construção" ("Construction")
"Deus Lhe Pague" ("God Bless You")
"Cotidiano" ("Daily")
"Feijoada Completa" ("Complete Feijoada" - a black bean dish)
"Funeral de um Lavrador" ("Funeral of a tiller")
"Futuros Amantes" ("Future Lovers")
"Homenagem Ao Malandro" ("Tribute to a city slicker")
"Meu Caro Amigo" ("My Dear Friend")
"Morena de Angola" (Dark skinned woman of Angola)
"Mulheres de Atenas" ("Women from Athens")
"Noite dos Mascarados" ("Night of the Masquerade")
"Olhos nos Olhos" (Eyes on the Eyes)
"Paratodos" (Has no meaning, but written as 'Para Todos' means: To All)
"Quem Te Viu, Quem Te Vê" (Who Saw You, Who Sees You)
"Roda Viva" ("In a literal translation to English: 'fuss'")
"Sonho de um Carnaval" ("Dream of a Carnival")
"Tatuagem" ("Tattoo")
"Teresinha" (Little Theresa)
"Vai Levando" ("Carrying on")
"Vai Passar" ("It Will Pass") Chico Buarque Selected compositions

1966 - A Banda (Songbook)
1974 - Fazenda Modelo
1979 - Chapeuzinho Amarelo (Children's Literature)
1981 - À Bordo do Rui Barbosa
1991 - Estorvo
1995 - Benjamin
2003 - Budapeste Books

1967/8 - Roda Viva
1973 - Calabar (co-authored with Ruy Guerra)
1975 - Gota d'água
1978 - Ópera do Malandro (Based on John Gay's Beggar's Opera and Bertold Brecht's Threepenny Opera)
1983 - O Grande Circo Místico Cinema

Chico Buarque de Hollanda - vol.1
Chico Buarque de Hollanda
Morte e Vida Severina
Chico Buarque de Hollanda - vol.2
Chico Buarque de Hollanda - vol.3
Chico Buarque de Hollanda – compacto
Umas e outras - compacto
Chico Buarque de Hollanda – compacto
Chico Buarque na Itália
Apesar de você
Per un pugno di samba
Chico Buarque de Hollanda - vol.4
Quando o carnaval chegar (When Carnival Comes)
Caetano e Chico juntos e ao vivo(Caetano and Chico Together and it's Live)
Chico canta (Chico Singing)
Sinal fechado (Traffic Light Red)
Chico Buarque & Maria Bethânia ao vivo (Chico Buarque and Maria Bethânia LIVE)
Meus caros amigos (My Dear Friends)
Cio da Terra compacto (Landscapes Rut)
Os saltimbancos (The Jugglers)
Gota d'água (Water Drop)
Chico Buarque (Samambaia)
Ópera do Malandro (A Rogue's Opera)
Vida (Life)
Show 1º de Maio compacto
Saltimbancos trapalhões (The Stooges Jugglers)
Chico Buarque en espanhol (Chico Buarque In Spanish)
Para viver um grande amor (To Live a Great Love)
O grande circo místico (The Huge Mystic Circus)
Chico Buarque (Vermelho) (Chico Buarque - RED)
O Corsário do rei (The Corsair Of The King)
Ópera do malandro (A Rogue's Opera)
Malandro (Rogue)
Melhores momentos de Chico & Caetano (Best Moments of Chico & Caetano)
Dança da meia-lua (Half-Moon's Dance)
Chico Buarque
Chico Buarque ao vivo Paris Le Zenith (Chico Buarque Live at Paris Le Zenith)
Para Todos (To All)
Uma palavra (One Word)
Terra (Earth)
As cidades (The Cities
Chico Buarque da Mangueira
Chico ao Vivo (Chico LIVE)
Chico e as cidades (DVD) (Chico And The Cities LIVE)
Chico Buarque – Duetos (Chico Buarque - Duets)
Chico ou o país da delicadeza perdida (DVD, direção Roberto Oliveira)
Meu Caro Amigo (DVD, direção Roberto Oliveira) - My Dear Friend(DVD, direction by Roberto Oliveira)
A Flor da Pele (DVD, direção Roberto Oliveira)
Vai passar (DVD, direção Roberto Oliveira) - It Will Go away (Same Above)
Anos Dourados (DVD, direção Roberto Oliveira) - Golden Years (Same Above)
Estação Derradeira (DVD, direção Roberto Oliveira) - Derradeira Station (Same Above)
Bastidores (DVD, direção Roberto Oliveira) - Behind The Scenes (Same Above)
O Futebol (DVD, direção Roberto Oliveira) - The Football (Same Above)
Romance (DVD, direção Roberto Oliveira) - Romance (Same Above)
Uma Palavra (DVD, direção Roberto Oliveira) - One Word (Same Above)
Carioca (CD + DVD com documentário "Desconstrução", direção Bruno Natal)
(CD + DVD with documentary "Wraping It Up", direction By Bruno Natal)
Carioca Ao Vivo (Recorded at "Canecão" in Rio)

Wednesday, October 24, 2007

Bread - Pasta - Cheese - Rice Sauces - Soups - Desserts Herbs and spices Other ingredients
Architecture Cinema Comic books Cuisine DancesLomo saltado Literature Music Poetry Sculpture Television Theater Visual arts
Peruvian cuisine is considered one of the most diverse in the world and is on par with French, Chinese and Indian cuisine. In January 2004, The Economist said that "Peru can lay claim to one of the world's dozen or so great cuisines" [1], while at the Fourth International Summit of Gastronomy Madrid Fusión 2006, regarded as the world's most important gastronomic forum, held in Spain between January 17th and 19th, Lima was declared the "Gastronomic Capital of the Americas" [2].
Thanks to its pre-Inca and Inca heritage and to Spanish, Basque, African, Sino-Cantonese, Japanese and finally Italian, French and Britain immigration (mainly throughout the 19th century), Peruvian cuisine combines the flavors of four continents. With the eclectic variety of traditional dishes, the Peruvian culinary arts are in constant evolution, and impossible to list in their entirety. Suffice it to mention that along the Peruvian coast alone there are more than two thousand different types of soups, and that there are more than 250 traditional desserts.
There are many restaurants specializing in Peruvian cuisine in many different cities throughout the world.
The great variety in Peruvian cuisine stems from three major influences:

Peru's unique geography, 84 of the 104 possible life zones according to Holdridge
Peru's openness and blending of distinct races and cultures
The incorporation of ancient cuisine into modern Peruvian cuisine Diverse crops
Some plants that were cultivated by the ancient societies of Peru have now been rediscovered by modern Peruvians and are carefully studied by scientists. Due to the characteristics of its land and climate and due to the nutritional quality of its products, some Peruvian plants will play a vital role in the nutrition of the future: this is true for quinoa, which is an excellent source of essential amino acids, and kañiwa which appear to be and are prepared like cereals but are not cereals. Root vegetables such as maca and real cereals like kiwicha are also plants nutritionists are researching today.
For many of Peru's inhabitants, these foodstocks allow for adequate nutrition even though living standards are poor. The abandoning of many of these staples during the Spanish domination and republican eras has brought down nutritional levels in the country.
Some of these foodstocks have been used since 1985 by NASA for astronaut food, like quinoa, kiwicha and maca.
Peruvian cuisine is often made spicy by means of ají pepper, a basic ingredient. Some Peruvian chili peppers are not spicy but serve to give color to dishes. Rice often accompanies dishes in Peruvian cuisine, and the regional sources of foods and traditions give rise to countless varieties of preparation and dishes.
Fine Peruvian cuisine emphasizes the mix of colors and ingredients, in a dynamically growing restaurateur industry and trends lead by young and talented chefs.
The following are just a few of the many dishes which are generally popular with the Peruvians. Some of these originated in other parts of Peru but most are well known and can be found in some part of Lima.

Cultivation of ancient plants
Peru is a country that holds not just a variety of ethnic mixes since times ranging from the Inca Empire, the Viceroyalty and the Republic, but also a climatic variety that sometimes is not believed by outsiders: 28 of a possible 32 world climates. The mixing of cultures and the variety of climates differ from city to city so geography, climate, culture and ethnic mix determine the variety of local cuisine.

Regional differences
The cuisine of the coast can be said to have four strong influences: the Moorish, the African, the Chinese and the local native.
The Pacific Ocean is the principal source of aquatic resources for Peru. Peru is one of the world's top two producers and exporters of unusually high-protein fishmeal for use in livestock/aquaculture feed. Its richness in fish and other aquatic life is enormous, and many oceanic plant and animal species can only be found in Peru. As important as the Pacific is to Peru's biodiversity, freshwater biomes such as the Amazon River and Lake Titicaca also play a large role in the ecological make-up of the country.
Every coastal region, being distinct in flora and fauna populations, adapts its cuisine in accordance to the resources available in its waters.
Ceviche, with its many different variations (pure, combination, or mixed with fish and shellfish) is a good example of this regional adaptation. Ceviche is found in almost all Peruvian restaurants specialized in this country's world renowned fish and seafood. Lima alone holds thousands of them, from the simple to very fancy ones. Typically served with camote, or sweet potato.
The chupe de camarones (shrimp cioppino) is one of the most popular dishes of Peruvian coastal cuisine. It is made from a thick freshwater shrimp (crayfish) stock soup, potatoes, milk and chili pepper. Regarded as typical from Arequipa (a beautiful southern andean city in Peru), Chupe de Camarones is regularly found in Peruvian restaurants specialized in Arequipan cuisine.

The cuisine of the Coast
A center of immigration and centers of the Spanish viceroyalty, Lima and Trujillo have incorporated unique dishes brought from the arrival of the Spanish Conquistadors and the receiving of many waves of immigrants: African, European, Chinese, and Japanese. Besides international immigration—a large portion of which happened in Lima—there has been, since the second half of the 20th century, a strong internal flow from rural areas to cities, in particular to Lima. This has strongly influenced Lima's cuisine with the incorporation of the immigrant's ingredients and techniques (for example, the Chinese extensive use of rice or the Japanese approach to preparing raw fish).
Creole cuisine is the most widespread in this cosmopolitan city. Some international cuisines with a large presence include Chinese (known locally as Chifa) and Italian. The city's ubiquitous bakeries are another culinary treasure, where you may find just out of the oven bread from 6 to 9am and from 4 to 6pm. Few coastal cities bakeries produce "bollos", which are loaves of stone and wood-oven baked bread from the Andes, the great Peruvian mountains.
Anticuchos are brochettes made from a beef heart marinated in a various Peruvian spices and grilled, often sided with boiled potatoes and corn. They are commonly sold by street vendors and served shish kabob-style, but you may find them in creole food restaurants.
Also frequently sold by street vendors are tamales: boiled corn with meat or cheese and wrapped in a banana leaf. They are similar to humitas, which consist of corn mixed with spices, sugar, onions, filled with pork and olives and finally wrapped in the leaves of corn husks. Tamales are a common breakfast food, often served with lima and/or "Salsa Criolla."
Another favorite food to be found in many restaurants is Papas a la huancaína (Huancayo-style potatoes), a dish consisting of sliced boiled potatoes, served on a bed of lettuce with a slightly spicy cheese sauce with olives. Even if the name says that it is from Huancayo, it is actually from Chosica, in Lima, made by a "Huancaina" (a person from huancayo)
Ceviche, often spelled "cebiche" in Peru, is the flagship dish of coastal cuisine, and one of Peru's favorites. It is the quintessence of fusion: Andean chili peppers, onions and acidic aromatic lime, of a species imported by the Spanish, though with origins in Northern Africa ("limon" in Spanish). A spicy dish, it consists generally of bite-size pieces of white fish (such as corvina or white sea bass), marinated raw in lime or lemon juice mixed with chilis. Ceviche is served with raw onions, boiled sweet potatoes (camote), toasted corn (cancha), and sometimes a local green seaweed yuyo. Leche de tigre (tiger's milk), is the Peruvian colloquial name for the juice produced from the ingredients of ceviche. It has a light spicy flavor and serves as a good reconstituent. Local custom recommends ceviche as a breakfast for sleepwalkers, a hangover cure and as an aphrodisiac. Unlike ceviche from Mexico and Ecuador, it does not have tomatoes, and unlike that of Tahiti it does not use coconut milk, though both are abundant in Peru. A variation available in Callao replaces mango for fish.
Tiradito is the younger brother of ceviche, and shows more clearly the influence that Japanese cooks have had in Peru's seafood cuisine (though some suggest that it's closer to Italian carpaccio, popularized by Genovese immigrants). The fish is sliced in fine strips (about 6 cm by 2 cm) that are similar to sashimi, and then marinated in a mix of lime juice, ginger and ají limo. Unlike ceviche, tiradito lacks onions, which translates into a subtler taste.
Papa rellena (stuffed potato): mashed potatoes stuffed with ground (minced) meat, eggs, olives and various spices and then deep fried.
Sancochado: A hearty beef and vegetable stew which includes yuca (cassava) and camotes (sweet potatoes).
A local staple found in many cheaper, as well as more up-market, restaurants is lomo saltado, sliced beef (if made from the tenderloin it is "lomo fino") sauteed with onion, tomato, soy sauce, vinegar, chili (aji) and served or mixed with French fried potatoes (aka "chips"), and accompanied with rice.
Lima has an abundance of Peruvian-style Chinese restaurants or "chifas" as they are known locally; indeed, arroz chaufa or Chinese style rice is one of the frequently sampled dishes that has found its way into Peruvian cuisine.
Arroz con pollo, or rice with chicken, is enjoyed for its rich-flavored rice combined with chicken.
Chupe de pescado or fish cioppino is popular in Lima and along the coast.
Lima butter bean (pallares) salad: a salad made with (obviously) Peruvian Lima butter beans (called pallares in Perú), boiled (but still whole) and mixed (when cooled) with a "salsa" of onions, slices of tomatoes, and green ají (chili), marinated in green Peruvian lime juice, oil, salt, and vinegar. Lima butter beans (pallares) have been part of the Peruvian cuisine for at least 6,000 years.
Butifarras: a sandwich in a hamburger-type bread roll and consisting of Peruvian ham with a special spicy sauce.
Causa in its basic form is a mashed yellow potato dumpling mixed with lemon, onion, chili and oil. Varieties can have avocado, chicken, tuna (typically canned) or even shellfish added to the mixture. Also Causa is very popular in Lima which distinguishes this dish by saying Causa Limeña Causa is usually served cold with hard boiled eggs and olives.
Carapulcra is an appetizing stewed dish of pork and chicken, dried potatoes, red chilis, peanuts and cumin. The version from the Afro-Peruvian Ica region uses fresh potatoes.
Empanadas peruanas (Peruvian pastries/meat pies. These are not to be confused with the meat pies found in many northern Western countries. They can be filled either with chicken, beef, cheese or be strictly vegetarian. They have a unique taste due to the addition of olives and sometimes hard boiled eggs and raisins).
Ají de gallina (chili chicken) is thin strips of chicken served with a creamy yellow and spicy sauce, made basically with ají amarillo (yellow chilis), cheese, milk, bread, and walnuts. Traditionally from non-laying hens, but today almost exclusvely made from more tender chickens.
Escabeche criollo (pickled fish): "Escabeche" when the word is used alone normally refers to escabeche of fish. Other varieties can use duck or chicken. The escabeche dishes rely in the cooking on the heavy use of vinegar and onions together with other spices and chili.
Cau cau is a meal consisting of mondongo or tripe stew and accompanied by rice. This to have African and Chinese influence along Italian.
Chicharrones: a dish consisting of deep-fried (in its own fat) and heavily salted pork.

Lomo saltado The cuisine of Lima and Central Coast
The cuisine of the northern coast offers a difference in style from the central and southern varieties. This is not only due to the coastal native Indian influence (less Andean), the Moorish and Spanish influence, the African and the Gypsy influence (Hindustani); but also to the warmer coastal seas, hotter climate and immense geographical latitude variety.
The climatical variety that offers regions between Tumbes, Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca and San Martin is enormous and it is not uncommom to have variety just 100 km between regions.
Northern Style Dishes:
Pez Guitarra
Seco de Cabrito (goat stew, but goat is often substituted by lamb, chicken, or beef) is ed in a pot after marinating with chicha de jora or beer and other spices including fresh coriander leaves (cilantro) and garlic. This is most popular in the northern coast especially in Cajamarca and Lambayeque.
Seco de Chavelo (typically from Catacaos - Piura is a type of seco that is made of cecina stewed and dried meat that has been clotted and dried along with bananas, yuca, aji panca and the addition of Clarito (from Chicha de Jora the Piurano style).
Majao de Yuca
Pasao al Agua
Cebiche de Conchas Negras (ceviche with black shells) is a dish of Piura and Tumbes is also popular along the southern coast of Ecuador due to Peruvian influence. In this version of ceviche, the seafood used in the dish should be black clams accompanied by popcorn and/or toasted corn.

The cuisine of the Northern Coast

The cuisine of the Southern Coast
In the valleys and plains of the Andes, the locals' diet continues to be based on corn (maize), potatoes, and an assortment of tubers as it has been for many hundreds of years. Meat comes from indigenous animals like alpacas and guinea pigs, but also from imported livestock like sheep and swine.
As with many rural cultures, most of the more elaborate dishes were reserved for festivities, while daily meals were simple affairs. Nowadays, the festive dishes are consumed every day, although they tend to be on the heavy side and demand a large appetite.
The pachamanca is a very special banquet in and of itself. Cooked all over the Andean region of Peru, is made from a variety of meats (including pork and beef), herbs and a variety of vegetables that are slowly cooked underground on a bed of heated stones. It demands skillful cooks to create and a large number of guests to consume. Because of its tedious preparation it is normally only done for celebrations or festivals in the Andes, though recent years have seen the appearance of many "campestre" restaurants outside Lima where urban families can escape to spend an afternoon in the fresh air eating pachamanca. Such as in Cieneguilla.Places for Pachamanca in Lima Surroundings
Andean cooking's main freshwater fish is the trout, raised in fisheries in the region.
Currently, ostrich meat is being raised from farms in Arequipa, although its consumption is not widespread and limited to urban areas.
Cuy chactado: A dish more popular in the highlands is this meal of fried guinea pig. Often the indigenous women of the Peruvian Andes will raise the guinea pigs in their huts where they run around loose on the floors of the dwellings. Prior to consumption they can reach a surprisingly large size. Besides the use of guinea pigs as separate meals, they are often cooked in a Pachamanca with other meats and vegetables.
Olluquito con charqui is another typical Andean dish. Olluco is a yellowish tuber (Ullucus tuberosus) domesticated by pre-Inca populations, and is visually similar to colorful small Andean potatoes, but with a distinct crunchy texture when cooked. Charqui is the technique employed in the Andean highlands to cure meat by salting, then dehydration. The dish is a stew of finely diced ollucos with charqui pieces (traditionally alpacea, or less frequently llama meat, though today it is also very commonly made from sheep), served with white rice.
Rocoto relleno: Arequipa dish made from stuffed rocoto chilis. Rocotos are one of the very hot (spicy) chilis of Peru. In this dish they are stuffed with spiced beef or pork, onions, olives, egg white and then cooked in the oven with potatoes covered with cheese and milk.

The cuisine of the Andes
Naturally, jungle cuisine is made using the products local to the area. Although many animal species are hunted for food in the biologically diverse jungle, two standouts are the paiche (the world's largest freshwater fish) and turtles. Hunting turtles is prohibited in Peru, therefore turtle-based dishes are scarce and expensive and not sold à la carte in restaurants.
Among the fruits of Peru's jungle is the camu camu, which contains 40 times more vitamin C than the kiwifruit. Exotic fruits such as mango and pineapple are also in abundance.
Cebiche de Dorado

Other regional dishes
Chifa (from the mandarin words 吃飯 "chi1 fan4", meaning "to eat rice") is the Peruvian term for Chinese food (or for a Chinese restaurant). In the 150 years since its arrival in Peru, the Chinese Peruvian culture has revolutionized Peruvian cuisine, gaining international recognition from those who have had the opportunity to sample it while visiting Peru.
Chifa reflects a fusion by Chinese Peruvians of the products that the Chinese brought with them to those that they found in Peru, and later cultivated themselves. Even some creole dishes such as tacu-tacu, lomo saltado, and arroz chaufa were influenced by the Chinese.
In downtown Lima, on Capón Street, is the barrio chino (Chinatown). The great variety of savory and sweet dishes there, with different types of meats, vegetables, and soups, created a new culinary alternative for Peruvians.

El Chifa
Alfajores: a common dessert made in several varieties. The basic recipe makes use of a base mix of flour, lemon rind, margarine, and powdered sugar which is then oven-baked. Alfajores consist of two or more layers of this baked pastry, and is usually filled with either manjar blanco (a caramel-colored, sweet, creamy filling made with milk and sugar) or molasses.
Turrones(or nougat) (similar to fudge) are of several varieties. One common variety to be found in Lima is Turrón de Doña Pepa, an anise and honey nougat that is traditionally prepared for the Señor de los Milagros (or Lord of Miracles) procession, during October. Turrones are most commonly made from almonds, and can be found in Spanish-speaking countries all over the world.
Almost exclusive to Peru is the fruit known as lúcuma. Lucuma juice, ice cream, and corresponding lucuma shakes are very popular throughout Peru. Only lucuma ice cream normally can be found in large US cities (typically in Peruvian restaurants). One popular brand of ice cream in Peru is Donofrio, which is owned by Nestlé.
Helados (ice cream): Peru has the usual assortment of common ice cream flavors but also some more exotic flavors such as camu camu, guaraná and tuna, the latter being the local name for the fruit of the prickly pear cactus, and not to be confused with the fish. Peru is one of few countries in the world where the third most popular ice-cream (after vanilla and chocolate) is not strawberry, it is in fact the "nutty" flavored, orange colored lúcuma, which is an exotic fruit grown in quantity only in its native Peru, and only in recent years being exported in very limited quantities as a gourmet flavor (for ice cream and savory sauces) to the USA, and available in Europe essentially only in food shows.
Mazamorra morada: a jelly-like dessert which takes on the color of one of its main ingredients—purple maize. Mazamorra morada is a dessert typical of Peru. A variety of purple corn (maiz morado) grows in Peru that colors and adds a particular flavor to the water in which it is boiled. When that water is cooled and chopped fruit, lemon and sugar is added, and the mixture is served as a beverage, its name is "chicha morada".
Picarones: a sweet, ring-shaped fritter with a pumpkin base; often served with a molasses syrup.
Picarones are pumpkin fritters that are also eaten as late-afternoon street food during El Señor de los Milagros celebrations. This is another dish that has its origins in the colonial period. Some believe they are a local adaptation of Spanish buñuelos. Picarones are made of squash or pumpkin dough and sweetened with chancaca, raw cane sugar melted into a syrup.
Tejas: candy filled with manjar blanco and coated with a fondant-like shell. Some are also made with a chocolate shell (chocoteja).
Suspiro Limeño: a dessert made of milk. This classic criollo dessert is said to have been named by the famous Peruvian poet and author José Gálvez whose wife doña Amparo Ayarez was famous for her cooking. When asked what inspired the name, he reportedly replied 'because it is soft and sweet like the sigh of a woman'. In this case, it would be a woman from Lima, a Limeña.

Sweet dishes and desserts

Well-known soft drinks include:
Less common are:

Chicha Morada: a beverage prepared from a base of boiled purple maize to which are added chunks of pineapple, sugar, and ice as it cools. First-timers compare it to Kool-aid, with a pleasant, almost fruity taste. Not to be confused with the fermented beverage chicha (chicha de jora)
Inca Kola: the brand of a popular fizzy soda drink (gaseosa), which is a cultural icon, served literally on the most humble to the most exclusive tables nationwide, alone or with any type of food. Yellow in color, it is sweet and refreshing. Some compare its flavor to bubble gum. Inca Kola is the only national beverage in the world that beat worldwide Coca-Cola in sales.
Refresco de camu camu: Refrescos are basically non-fizzy type and simple juices of various flavours often served with the set menu of the day at smaller restaurants. Besides camu camu, there are more common flavours such as orange juice.
Té de uña de gato: a tea made from a plant from the Amazon, cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa), known for its healing or medicinal properties. Soft Drinks
Pisco, a kind of brandy, is considered by many to be the national drink of Peru. This distilled beverage made from grapes is produced in various regions of the country. Pisco Sour is a cocktail made from pisco combined with lemon juice, the white of an egg and sugar.
Wines come from many different regions of the country, most notably from the Ica Region.
Beer as in many countries, is popular in all levels of society. Local brands include Pilsen and Cristal. A couple of regional beers are Arequipeña and Cuzqueña (Cusqueña), from Arequipa and Cuzco, respectively; though Cuzqueña is popular nationwide and is exported worldwide. A common beer drinking ritual among many Peruvian men involves a group sharing one glass. The party holding the bottle waits for the prior person to drink from the glass before receiving that glass, filling it and passing the bottle on to the next in line. While this custom is more common among men of lower echelons of society, people of higher social status, particularly youth and occasionally women, take part in this custom.
Chicha or Chicha de Jora is another well-known drink, based on different varieties of fermented maize and different aromatic herbs, depending on the region of the country. Its consumption is mostly limited to the Andes area.
Chicha Norteña and Clarito

See also

This article draws heavily on the corresponding article in the Spanish-language Wikipedia, which was accessed in the version of 20 June 2005. It was translated by the Spanish Translation of the Week collaboration.
Platos Peruanos - A.B.C. S.A. Lima. Peru

Tuesday, October 23, 2007

Shinty (Scottish Gaelic camanachd or iomain) is a team sport played with sticks and a ball. Shinty is now played almost exclusively in the Highlands of Scotland, but it was formerly more widespread, reaching as far as England.
The sport was derived from the same root as the Irish game of hurling, and is similar to bandy.
Shinty is one of the forebears of ice hockey, Scottish immigrants to Nova Scotia playing a game on ice in 1800 at Windsor. In Canada, informal hockey games are still called shinny. Shinty is often compared to hurling, yet has many different rules and features. Shinty is more commonly compared to the modern day hockey.
In the Scottish Lowlands, it was formerly referred to as common/cammon (caman), cammock (from Scottish Gaelic camag), knotty and various other names.

Gaelic settlers from Ireland brought the sport of hurling to Scotland, where the game was played as such until the 14th century, albeit with a different caman from the Irish one. Shinty appears prominently in the legend of Cúchulainn, the Celtic mythology hero.
The game was traditionally played through the winter months, with New Year's Day being the day when whole villages would gather together to play games featuring teams of up to 80 a side, players often using any piece of wood with a hook as a caman.
In 1887, a historic game was played between Glenurquhart Shinty Club and Strathglass Shinty Club in Inverness. This game was attended by thousands of people and was a major milestone in developing a set of common rules. This fixture was to be repeated on 12th January 2007 in Inverness as the opening centrepiece of the Highland 2007 celebrations in Scotland, but was postponed due to a waterlogged pitch.
The modern sport is governed by the Camanachd Association (Scots Gaelic: Comann na Camanachd). The association came into being in the late Victorian era in as a means of formulating common rules to unite the various different codes and rules which even differed between neighbouring glens, in this the sport shares similarities with other sports which became organised around this time. The first meeting of the Camanachd Association was held in Kingussie in 1893.

Shinty is traditionally divided into two administrative and playing areas, the North and the South. The geographic divide is at Ballachulish, with all clubs south of here being classified as South teams, although most are still northerly in comparison to most of Scotland. The long distances to travel have meant that the game in the South and in the North habitually have slightly different approaches to the game. The South considered to be more skilful in comparison to the more physical style propagated in the North. The South also has a slightly differing formation which is commonly used than that of the North.
These clubs compete in various competitions, both cup and league, on a national and also North/South basis. Whilst the top two leagues are played on a national basis, the premier competition is the Scottish Cup or the Camanachd Association Challenge Cup (the Camanachd Cup for short) which has been dominated by Kingussie in the last twenty years. The other dominant team in shinty history has been Newtonmore, Kingussie's near neighbours. Strangely these two teams only met in the Camanachd Cup Final for the first time in 1984.
The 2006 final was played, for the first time, in Dunoon between holders Fort William and Kingussie. Kingussie regained the cup after three years due to a majestic performance by Ronald Ross.
In League shinty, Kingussie has been dominant for the past 20 years and, according to the Guinness Book of Records 2005, is world sport's most successful sporting team of all time, winning 20 consecutive league championships and going 4 years without losing a single fixture in the early 1990s. This incredible, unmatched run of dominance was ended on 2nd September by ancient rivals Newtonmore who defeated Oban Camanachd 2-0 to ensure that Kingussie could not catch the team at the top of the league. However, Newtonmore were unable to usurp their neighbours as champions, as the first post-Kingussie champions were confirmed as Fort William who sealed the title on 30th September 2006 having won their games in hand over Newtonmore.

ShintyShinty Competitions
In 2003, shinty clubs voted for a trial period of two years of a summer season from March to October, with a view to moving permanently to summer shinty if the experiment was judged to be a success. Despite opposition from the "Big Two", Kingussie and Newtonmore, and other small groups in the game, an EGM in November 2005 voted by an overwhelming majority (well over the required two thirds) to make summer shinty the basis upon which the game would proceed.
Predominantly a Highland game, there are also clubs to found in Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Perth and even London. University Shinty is a popular section of the sport, with almost all Scotland's main universities possessing a team. Historically, Glasgow University, Aberdeen University and Edinburgh University have vied for supremacy but in recent years, Strathclyde University, Robert Gordon's College and Dundee University have risen to prominence. It is also played in the British Army with The Highlanders Shinty Club keeping alive the tradition of the game being played in the Forces.
In recognition of shinty's shared roots with hurling, an annual international between the two codes from Scotland and Ireland is played on a home and away basis using composite rules. In recent years the Irish have had the upper hand but the Scots won the fixture narrowly in 2005 and again in 2006, this time at Croke Park, Dublin albeit with the Irish fielding weaker players from the second tier Christy Ring Cup.
Although Camanachd Cup finals and internationals have been shown over the years, 2006 marked the first ever regular TV deal for shinty with matches being shown on the BBC Sports show Spòrs.
In August 2006, the Camanachd Association decided to move its main offices to Inverness from Banavie near Fort William. This move was met with consternation by many in the sporting community with calls for an extraordinary general meeting. The EGM was held but a vote of no confidence in the Board of Directors was voted down. The Association recently appointed its first female chief executive Gill McDonald.

Monday, October 22, 2007

The English Revolution of 1688 divided the people of New York into two ill-defined factions. Past Historians have stressed the generality of the small shopkeepers, small farmers, sailors, poor traders and artisans allied against the patroons, rich fur-traders, merchants, lawyers and crown officers however, recent scholarship has produced a more muddy picture of the true divisions. The former were led by Leisler, the latter by Peter Schuyler (1657-1724), Nicholas Bayard (c. 1644 1707), Stephen van Cortlandt (1643-1700), William Nicolls (1657-1723) and other representatives of the aristocratic Hudson Valley families.
The Leislerians claimed greater loyalty to the Protestant succession. When news of the imprisonment of Gov. Andros in Massachusetts was received, they took possession on May 31, 1689 of Fort James (at the southern end of Manhattan Island), renamed it Fort William and announced their determination to hold it until the arrival of a governor commissioned by the new sovereigns. Thus began Leisler's Rebellion. The aristocrats also favoured the Revolution, but were unsure as to how they should act because of the meddling of Increase Mather in London. This caused a declaration of William and Mary's ascendency to be delayed for quite some time. When news finally reached New York it was uncertain and from a weak source therefore the Lt. Gov. Nicholson decided to suppress the information until a formal declaration made its way across the Atlantic.

The rebellion
Lieutenant-Governor Francis Nicholson sailed for England on June 24, a committee of safety was organized by the popular party, and Leisler was appointed commander-in-chief. Under authority of a letter from the home government addressed to Nicholson, or in his absence, to such as for the time being takes care for preserving the peace and administering the laws in His Majesty's province of New York, he assumed the title of lieutenant-governor in December 1689, appointed a council and took charge of the government of the entire province.
He summoned the first Intercolonial Congress in America, which met in New York on May 1, 1690 to plan concerted action against the French and Native Americans. Colonel Henry Sloughter was commissioned governor of the province on September 3, 1689 but did not reach New York until March 19, 1691.

Jacob Leisler End of the rebellion

The Life of Jacob Leisler - from the Fales Library, New York University
Statue of Jacob Leisler - in New Rochelle, NY