Friday, November 30, 2007

Gordian II
Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus (c. 192 - April 12, 238), known in English as Gordian II, was Roman Emperor during the year 238.
Gordian was the son of Emperor Gordian I. Gordian's mother may be the granddaughter of Greek Sophist, consul and tutor Herodes Atticus. His younger sister was Antonia Gordiana, who was the mother of Emperor Gordian III. The official history of the Roman emperors provides the only account of Gordian's early career. Since his memory was cherished after his death, the information is questionable and remains unproven. According to this source, Gordian served as quaestor in Elagabalus' reign and as praetor and consul suffect with Alexander Severus as emperor. In 237, Gordian went to the Africa Roman province under his father's command as a governor.
Early in 235, emperor Alexander Severus and his mother Julia Avita Mamaea were assassinated by mutinous troops in Germania Inferior. The leader of the rebellion, Maximinus Thrax, became emperor, despite his popular background and the disapproval of the Roman Senate. Pushed by the local politicians, Gordian's father began a revolt against Maximinus in 238 and became Augustus on March 22. Due to Gordian I's advanced age, the younger Gordian was attached to the imperial throne and acclaimed Augustus too. Father and son saw their pretensions ratified both by the senate and most of the other provinces, due to Maximinus' unpopularity.
Opposition would come from the neighbouring province of Numidia. Capelianus, governor of Numidia and a loyal supporter of Maximinus Thrax, renewed his alliance to the former emperor and invaded Africa province with the only legion stationing in the region III Augusta, and other veteran units. Gordian II, at the head of a militia army of untrained soldiers, lost the Battle of Carthage and was killed, and Gordian I took his own life. This first rebellion against Maximinus Thrax was unsuccessful but, by the end of 238, Gordian II's nephew would be recognised emperor by the whole Roman world as Gordian III.

Thursday, November 29, 2007

List of patent related topics
The below is a list of topics related to patents. See list of patent legal concepts for a list of articles on various legal aspects of patents, including special types of patents and patent applications.

Treaties, conventions and other legal texts and frameworks

Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs Agreement)
American Inventors Protection Act (AIPA)
Budapest Treaty
Community patent (proposed)
EU Directive on the Patentability of Computer-Implemented Inventions (proposed, then rejected)
EU Directive on the Patentability of Biotechnological Inventions
European Patent Convention (EPC)
European patent law
European Patent Litigation Agreement (EPLA) (proposed)
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
Japanese patent law
London Agreement (concluded but not in force yet)
Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property
U.S. Patent Reform Act of 2005
Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT)
Patent Law Treaty (PLT)
South African patent system
Substantive Patent Law Treaty (SPLT) (proposed)
Statute of Monopolies 1623
Strasbourg Convention
United States patent law

Wednesday, November 28, 2007

Force de frappe
The Force de frappe (literally Striking Force; meant for dissuasion, i.e. Deterrence) is the designation of what used to be a triad of air-, sea- and land-based French Nuclear Forces, part of the Military of France. France has the third largest nuclear force in the world, after the United States and Russia (see Estimated stockpiles).

Force de frappe History

Present state
France does not have active IRBMs anymore, the IRBM base at the Plateau d'Albion (Vaucluse region) has been deactivated in 1999. All army units equipped with SRBMs as the Pluton and Hadès missiles have been disbanded at the same time.

Land-based component
The French Navy includes a nuclear strategic branch, the Force Océanique Stratégique, composed of a fleet of:
One additional Triomphant-class SSBN, Le Terrible, is under construction and is scheduled for commissioning in 2008 to replace the aging L'Inflexible.
Development of the new Barracuda class of attack submarines is under way to replace all Rubis-class boats. Deliveries are scheduled from 2016 to 2026.

Four nuclear ballistic submarines: one Redoutable-class unit (L'Inflexible) of 1970s design, armed with the M4 SLBM, and three Triomphant-class SSBNs (Le Triomphant, Le Téméraire, and Le Vigilant) of late 1980s design, armed with the more modern M45 SLBM. Starting in 2010, the longer-range M51 SLBM will gradually replace the M45.
Six Rubis-class nuclear attack submarines of late 1970s design, tasked with protecting the SSBN fleet.

Tuesday, November 27, 2007

Enlightened absolutism
Enlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent or enlightened despotism) is a form of despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment, a historical period. Enlightened monarchs embraced the principles of the Enlightenment, especially its emphasis upon rationality, and applied them to their territories. They tended to allow religious toleration, freedom of speech and the press, and the right to hold private property. Most fostered the arts, sciences, and education.
Enlightened absolutists' beliefs about royal power were often similar to those of absolute monarchs, in that many believed that they had the right to govern by birth and generally refused to grant constitutions, seeing even the most pro-monarchy ones as being an inherent check on their power. The difference between an absolutist and an enlightened absolutist is based on a broad analysis of how far they embraced Enlightenment. In particular, the Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II can be said to have fully embraced the enlightened concept of the social contract. In contrast, Empress Catherine II of Russia entirely rejected the concept of the social contract while taking up many ideas of the Enlightenment, for example by being a great patron of the arts in Imperial Russia and incorporating many ideas of enlightened philosophers, especially Montesquieu, in her Nakaz, to a committee meant to revise Russian law.
In effect, the monarchs ruled with the intent of improving the lives of their subjects in order to strengthen or reinforce their authority. For example, the abolition of serfdom in some regions of Europe was achieved by enlightened rulers. In the spirit of enlightened absolutism, Emperor Joseph II said, "Everything for the people, nothing by the people."
Other enlightened absolutists, such as King Frederick the Great maintained the ideals of the Enlightenment while also permitting the practice of serfdom. The governing political philosophy of "rationalism" under the enlightened ancient regime, permitted these hereditary monarchs to commit hypocritical, yet rationally justifiable actions. Unlike the absolutist King Louis XIV of France, Frederick viewed himself as the "First servant of the State," rather than the state itself.
In modern times, Sultan Qaboos bin Said Al Said of Oman has been characterized as an enlightened absolutist, as while he maintains an absolute monarchy he also seeks to improve his country and rule with a light hand.

Monday, November 26, 2007

Radio Talk-show host on Cape Talk
Mweb columnist
Regular commentator on the Jeff Rense show
Jani Allan (born 11 September 1953) is a South African journalist and top radio commentator. Allan was formerly South Africa's leading columnist during her time at The Sunday Times (South Africa) newspaper. Her personal life has also frequently made the headlines, particularly in 1988 with her association with one of her Sunday Time's interviewees, right-wing AWB leader, Eugène Terre'Blanche. Speculation was intensified, regarding their association in 1992 during Allan's high-profile libel case against British broadcaster, Channel 4. Allan later returned to the mainstream of the South African media with a column and associated forum on Mweb and later as a radio show host on Cape Talk radio. Although Allan currently resides in the USA, and has been operating as a freelance journalist, as well as making several radio show appearance, as a radio show commentator.

In 1988, a Sunday Times interview for Allan's 'Face to face' column was published between Allan and Eugene Terreblanche , the right-wing AWB leader, Eugène Terre'Blanche.
Both were reported to have had several meetings following the interview as Allan was writing a book on right-wing politics in South Africa, and Terre'Blanche was a subject. Allan also accompanied the AWB to some of their rallies and reported for the Sunday Times.
Speculation regarding their relationship was intensified following the Paardekraal incident, whereby Allan and Terre'Blanche had organised to meet up at the Voortrekker Monument restaurant to discuss Terre'Blanche's inclusion in Allan's book. Following the meeting, Terre'Blanche allegedly crashed into the Voortrekker Monument's gates. The crash prompted police and media appearances and Allan and Terre'Blanche were seen together on the Paardekraal monument steps. Although there was little evidence to suggest an affair, the rumour mills did not hesitate in sensationalising the incident.
Allan herself sought to set the record straight in the same week, with her own version of events in a front-page leading story in The Sunday Times, with the headline ' The REAL story of me and ET and the SAP'. Her story cleared Terre'Blanche's as did his own version of events. Yet a court case of criminal damage (regarding the damage to the Vootrekker monument's gates) as well as crimen injura (regarding Terre'Blanche's expressed disrespectful language towards a police officer). In light of these charges, it was also alleged that the government (then in negotiations with the ANC and anticipating a multi-racial election) had been hoping to capitalize on events, to weaken the AWB and the right-wing challenge which they posed. Despite this, Terre'Blanche was found not-guilty on both charges. The AWB certainly was negatively affected by the court case and affair allegations.
Allan later released recorded telephone-tapes between her and Terre'Blanche to The Sunday Times. Yet in light of the bomb incident (a bomb had recently exploded in Jani's apartment and the planters were unknown, with suspects ranging from the AWB and intelligence sources among others) Allan retreated to London before the tapes were published, for her own safety. Although it would be several years until Allan would permanently return to South Africa.

Association with Eugene Terre'Blanche
In 1992, Allan sued Channel 4, the British broadcaster, for libel, claiming that in their documentary The Leader, His Driver and the Driver's Wife by Nick Broomfield, she was presented as a "woman of easy virtue". The documentary-maker, Broomfield, who was following the AWB and its activities, claimed that Jani Allan had an affair with Eugene Terre'Blanche, accompanying this were photos of Allan, when she worked as a photographic model.
Channel 4 was represented was by the late QC George Carman, and Allan herself admitted to Carman

Libel case against Channel 4
In 1994, during an interview with SABC, Jani Allan revealed that she had become a born again Christian. Despite not being successful in her high-profile libel case against Channel 4, she revealed that the case had served a purpose in that she found God. Having previously held faith in the British justice system and the belief that justic would prevail, if one told the truth, Allan was disillusioned with the outcome of the case and revelaed one could not put too much store in man's judgement. Allan revealed that the bible had brought about a 'dramatic change' in herself and that she had a 'new heart' and that her otlooks had changed. She also highlighted previous things which were important to her such as fame, fashion and fortune were now trasient.

In 1997, London's The Independent ran an article

Friendship with Mangosuthu Buthelezi
Prior to becoming a Journalist, Allan had worked as a teacher as well as photographic model. As she began to get involved in the media world, she worked at SAAN (South African Associated Newspapers).


Sunday Times
Allan got her break with the Sunday Times (where she would work for over a decade) when she was appointed gossip columnist with her Just Jani column. She frequently interviewed South Africa's celebrity elite and personalities in the entertainment world. She also interviewed foreign celebrities such as Robert Moore.

Just Jani
With her growing popularity, Allan was appointed the leading columnist and in her new column, Face to Face she would regularly interview political figures. Her guests ranged from Winnie Mandela to far-right political leaders such as Eugene Terre'Blanche.

Jani Allan Face to Face
Following her unsuccessful court case in London, Allan began to work with former SABC journalist, Cliff Saunders, as a domestic worker (yet in a role that was more similar to that of a PA). Yet Allan was unknowingly and allegedly working as a spy for her boss. Allan, a personal friend of Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) leader, Mangosuthu Buthelezi, was unknowingly employed to gather information on the IFP and its actvities as well as it's members. Allegedly Saunders was a previous apartheid spy and was now working for the new ANC regime and the IFP's activities were supposedly of much interest to the ANC.

Unwitting spy
Allan returned to South Africa in 1996, to be with her adoptive-mother who's health was deteriorating. Prior to returning, Allan also became a born-again Christian in 1994.Upon her return she was also interviewed by local Style magazine and appeared on the front cover .
She went on to make several appaearances in popular magazines and published articles in a wide range of publications. Of which included her regular lifestyle column for M-Net website's lifestyle section.

Return to South Africa
Jani Allan was also involved as a columnist for MWeb. As well as writing for the website, she had her own discussion forum. Although controversially Mweb and Jani Allan parted company and her forum site was removed following an article in which Allan questioned today's non-colonial Africa.

In 1997 she was announced as a host on Cape Talk Radio, a Cape Town-based popular radio show and launched her show Jani's world which aired on Friday evening's between 9pm to midnight.The show became the station's most popular show, even towards it's cancellation.
Yet her show, she and her guest sparked controversy in September 1999, when she interviewed American right-winger Keith Johnson of the Militia of Montana. Johnson made remarks about abbinical teachings, Israel, Hitler and the Holocaust. As well as outlining global conspiracy theory, he denounced homosexuality, race mixing and former South African President, Nelson Mandela. Allan sparked controversy, as she did not correct Johnson regarding these issues. Although Allan herself did not express that she agreed with the controversial views expressed.The interview[2] gained a considerable negative reaction from viewers and an apology was broadcast two days later.
In a show broadcast with Jan Lamprecht on capetalk, both discussed 'Mugabe's reign of terror and the Zimbabwe land grabs'. Shortly after the show, she was held up at gunpoint with a magnum 44 in an incident which may have been related to the broadcast.
Allan hosted the 3 hour evening show for three years,despite the success of the show, which had high audience figures and was popular across racial boundaries, her contract was terminated in October 2000. It was claimed that 'there is no place for the likes of Jani Allan in the New South Africa." Allan commented that the owners of the station found her style too politically incorrect and controversial.[3]

Cape Talk Radio
In 2001 Allan relocated to the USA, she had previously displayed discontent with the ruling South African government and had recently been held up in a Cape Town hostage drama. Allan also outlined her green card woes and her destructive and short-lived recent marriage on her blog and Jeff Rense's website [4].

Emigration to the USA
Six months after arriving in America in 2001, Allan married an American man. Yet the marriage soon collapsed with Allan citing the increasingly abusive nature of the marriage and physical as well as mental isolation. Soon after her hospitalisation for both physical and psychological effects of the relationship, she fled the marital home.

Second marriage
In her own local state of Pennsylvania, Allan was also providing horoscopes [5] from 2003 in local magazine 'NewHopePennsylvania' , including both human as well as pet horoscopes, Allan herself is a dog lover. Previously, Allan shared a Sandton flat with former friend and colleague, Linda Shaw, The Sunday Time's astrologer, and who also testified in the 1992 libel case.


US Radio appearances
On 17th June 2004, Jani Allan appeared as the guest on the Jeff Rense show. During the show, which had a listenership of 17m, Allan highlighted the plights of many white Afrikaner families and she encouraged Americans to sponsor white Afrikaner refugees. During the interview, Allan also focussed on her own experiences as a victim of crime as well as on the high rate of white farm murders in South Africa.
Jani Allan later became the regular Friday-night weekly guest-commentator. The popularity of her interview with Rense, also resulted in a repeat of the interview.

Jeff Rense Show
In January 2005, Allan appeared on the 'Flipside with Robby Noel', broadcast on Republic radio. Throughout the interview, Allan questioned the gun laws in place in South Africa as well as other South African-related matters, such as media freedom, crime and cruelty to animals.
Ironically just as Allan had been invited as a weekly Friday night guest commentator on the Jeff Rense Show, she was also invited to hold the same position on Robby Noel's show, 'The Flipside with Robby Noel'.

The Flipside with Robby Noel
Jani Allan has also appeared on the Larry Pratt show, discussing gun laws in place in South Africa. She was also a guest on the information corner radio, [6].

Other radio appearance
Jani Allan has also been involved in writing for conservative news website, worldnetdaily. Her articles for the website have covered issues such as Zimbawe and comparisons with animal cruelty in the country as well as traditional African medical practices.

In 2002, Allan was played by an actress in the BBC production, Get Carman: The Trials of George Carman QC. Carman had previously presented Channel 4, during Allan's earlier libel case, and the television production was based upon the libel case among other high-profile court cases that Carman was involved with.
In 2004, Allan was played by Joan Collins in a comedy spoof for SABC.

Screen depictions

In the interview[7] with Jeff Rense on United States Radio. Allan accused Thabo Mbeki's ANC-led government of targeting white South Africans, particularly Afrikaners, with a genocide campaign. The allegations were sparked by the high proportion of white South African farm attacks taking place in rural South Africa, and were reinforced by the forced and violent removals of white farmers in neighbouring Zimbabwe. Allan also asked for American families to start sponsoring Afrikaner families as political refugees.Allan claimed Mbeki 'has a total obsession with race, that he hates the Afrikaner people and that he is obsessed with what he terms 'colonial oppression'. Apart for alleged genocide, another reason which reinforced Allan's decision to depart South Africa was following an incident where she was held up at gunpoint in Cape Town. Allan relocated to Pennsylvania, USA. Allan is regarded as an outspoken critic of the ANC government as well as an ambassador for the Afrikaner cause.

White genocide
In July 2004, in an article [8] Allan questioned the price of free speech, following Jan Lamprecht's decision to take down his website, following an intimidation campaign by the ANC. The site (now reinstated) chronicles the high rate of white farm murders and brutality within South Africa. Lamprecht faced problems when he gave Jani a voice on his site and associated forum. The forum and site was inundated with hate-mail and spam (from users allegedly sympathetic the ANC regime) particularly following Allan's appearance on the Jeff Rense show, which attracted millions of domestic listeners as well as international interest. The ANC allegedly employed a Sunday Times journalist and former colleague to publish a report discrediting Allan's expressed opinion in the show.The web site as well as Jani's forum often outlined the barbaric crime situation, the ANC's ineffectiveness as well as their Marxist origins. A friend of Lamprecht's from the TAU (Transvaal Agricultural Union)even wrote to him stating that "By giving Jani a platform you have angered the movers and shakers... WATCH YOUR BACK!". Allegedly, ANC propagandists were assigned to the site to cause trouble.
In related situations regarding apparent oppression of freedom of speech, Jani Allan's apartment was bombed in 1990. Although contrasting theories persist, regarding the observation that it was an AWB bomb or whether South African intelligence or the ANC were involved. At the time, Allan was controversial as being clearly politically-right and often at odds with the NP's negotiations with the ANC at the time. And as the leading columnist of The Sunday Times, which attracted a huge readership, she had an influential role.
Jani Allan's M-Net forum and column immediately lost it's M-WEB sponsorship and was taken down overnight following an article she wrote on the site, which questioned post-colonial Africa.
In 2000, Allan was also held hostage, following an interview discussing the Mugabe regime in Zimbabwe. (See CapeTalk section.)

Zimbabwe and animal cruelty
In 2004, Allan also published a damning report on communist findings within the ruling ANC government [10]. Allan made many observations, particularly the military training of many ANC members in Soviet Russia.

ANC communism
In 2005, Allan expressed her own feelings [11]regarding the case of the late Terri Schiavo, whose parents fought extensive legal challenges to keep their daughter alive. Following her collapse in 1990, she had been leading a life of institutilzation for 15 years and was declared as being in a persistent vegetative state and was dependant on a feeding tube. The courts eventually ruled that the feeding tube be removed, and Schiavo be left to die. Allan as well as others were outraged and she branded the actions as a 'public execution'.

Terri Schiavo
Allan has also expressed her disapproval [12] of the gun laws in place in South Africa, which has the highest rate of firearms-related murders in the world. The South African gun laws make it more difficult for home-owners to obtain guns and their accompanying licenses. With suburban areas which are characterised by the high level of security, for many South Africans, they are regarded as a form of household protection rather than intimidation. Allan also speculated that the gun laws placed white South Africans, in particular, in a vulnerable position and left the community susceptible to an alleged planned genocide known as operation Uhuru as well as other names.

Gun control
It was widely speculated that in an internet letter by President Mbeki, he was referring to Jani Allan when he wrote that "Having convinced her listeners that she fled from her white suburb in Cape Town, because the black savages were at her door, some editor in our country will then seize on her victory triumphantly to proclaim that 'overseas the perception remains that SA is one of the world's crime capitals'. President Mbeki blamed the unnamed woman's reasoning on "The psychological residue of apartheid has produced a psychosis among some of us such that, to this day, they do not believe that our non-racial democracy will survive and succeed.''
The reaction from the ANC to the interview with Rense according to Allan's msn groups page was : "We knew Jani Allan was a crazy attention seeker, but to tell such blatant lies about genocide being committed against white South Africans to seven million gullible Americans is beyond the pale. She has slandered our President and told lies that surely constitute treason."

She has a degree in English Literature.
She is a trained classical pianist.
She is mentioned in the Jeremy Maggs' book/memoir 'Daze of my life'
She is mentioned in the 2003 Pat Hopkins book 'Cringe the beloved country'.
She used to drive a red Ferrari whilst working for The Sunday Times.

Sunday, November 25, 2007

Popular Culture
London Transport Portal
The tube map is the schematic diagram that represents the lines, stations, and zones of London's rapid transit rail system, the London Underground.
A schematic diagram rather than a map, it represents not geography but relations. It considerably distorts the actual relative positions of stations, but accurately represents their sequential and connective relations with each other along the lines and their placement within fare zones. The basic design concepts, especially that of mapping topologically rather than geographically, have been widely adopted for other network maps around the world.

The first underground line in London, the Metropolitan Railway opened in 1863. However, as different lines on the Underground controlled by different companies, no official unified map was produced until 1906, when Charles Tyson Yerkes unified the railways and operated them under a combined "Underground" brand.
Early Underground maps were laid out on a geographically-correct basis, and indeed at first had maps of the streets and other local features laid on top of them. by which time details such as streets had been removed.
The 1932 edition was the last geographically-based map to be published, before the much more familiar style of map took its place. However, the actual routes are shown as blue lines on the Transport for London bus maps.

Tube map Early maps
The first diagrammatic map of the Underground was designed by Harry Beck in 1933.

Beck's maps
Beck had by 1960 fallen out with the Underground's publicity officer, Harold Hutchinson. Hutchinson, though not a designer himself, drafted his own version of the Tube map in 1960; it removed the smoothed corners of Beck's design, lines were less straight and created some highly cramped areas (most notably, around Liverpool Street).

After Beck
Alterations have been made to the map over the years. Recent designs have incorporated changes to the network, such as the Docklands Light Railway and the Jubilee Line Extension. In addition, since 2002 the Underground ticket zones have been added, to better help passengers judge the cost of a journey. Nevertheless the map remains true to Beck's original scheme, and many other transport systems use schematic maps to represent their services, undoubtedly inspired by Beck. A facsimile of Beck's original design is on display on the southbound platform at his local station, Finchley Central. The map is currently maintained and updated by Alan Foale, of The LS Company.

The design has become so widely known that it is now instantly recognisable as representing London. It has been featured on T-shirts, postcards, and other memorabilia. In 2006 the design came second in a televised search for the most well known British Design Icon. published a design based on the tube map, purporting to show the relationships between musicians and musical genres in the 20th century. The map is discussed by its creator, Dorian Lynskey, on the Guardian's Culture vulture blog.
On January 11, 2007 Lord Adonis unveiled a depiction of the Tube Map featuring the names of successful schools and students at GCSE level, as part of the London Student Awards 2007.
David Booth's The Tate Gallery by Tube 1986 is one of a series of publicity posters for the Underground. His work showed the lines of the map squeezed out of tubes of paint and has since been used on the cover of the map itself.
In 2003, to coincide with the publication of a book, the London Transport Museum released a "World Metro Map" strongly based on the London diagram and approved by TfL. Technical aspects
The table below shows the changing use of colours since the first Beck map. The current colours are taken from the TfL Colour Standards guide, which defines the precise colours and also a colour naming scheme which is particular to TfL. Earlier maps were limited by the number of colours available that could be clearly distinguished in print. Improvements in colour printing technology have reduced this problem and the map has coped with the identification of new lines without great difficulty.
Service information is indicated by the format:

Solid colour – normal service
Outline colour – limited service
Alternating solid and outline colour – under construction or closed for renovation Line colours
An important symbol that Beck introduced was the 'tick' to indicate stations. This allowed stations to be placed closer together while retaining clarity, because the tick was only on the side of the line nearer the station name (ideally centrally placed, though the arrangement of lines did not always allow this).
From the start, interchange stations were given a special mark to indicate their importance, though its shape changed over the years. In addition, from 1960, marks were used to identify stations that offered convenient interchange with British Railways (now National Rail). The following shapes have been used:
Since 1970 the map has used the British Rail 'double arrow' beside the station name to indicate main-line interchanges. Where the main-line station has a different name from the Underground station that it connects with, since 1977 this has been shown in a box.
In recent years, some maps have marked stations offering step-free access suitable for wheelchair users with a blue circle containing a wheelchair symbol in white.
Some interchanges are more convenient than others and the map designers have repeatedly rearranged the layout of the map to try to indicate where the interchanges are more complex, such as by making the interchange circles more distant and linking them with thin black lines. Sometimes the need for simplicity overrides this goal; the Bakerloo/Northern Lines interchange at Charing Cross is not very convenient and passengers would be better off changing at Embankment, but the need to simplify the inner London area means that the map seems to indicate that Charing Cross is the easier interchange.

Empty circle (one for each line or station, where convenient) - standard default mark
Empty circle (one for each station) - 1938 experimental map
Empty diamond (one for each line) - early 1930s
Empty square - interchange with British Railways, 1960-1964
Circle with dot inside - interchange with British Rail, 1964-1970 Station marks
The map aims to make the complicated network of services easy to understand, but there are occasions when it might be useful to have more information about the services that operate on each line.
The District Line is the classic example; it is shown as one line on the map, but comprises services on the main route between Upminster and Ealing/Richmond/Wimbledon; between Edgware Road and Wimbledon; and the High Street Kensington to Olympia shuttle service. For most of its history the map has not distinguished these services, which could be misleading to an unfamiliar user. Recent maps have tried to tackle this problem by separating the different routes at Earl's Court.
Limited-service routes have sometimes been identified with hatched lines (see above), with some complications added to the map to show where peak-only services ran through to branches, such as that to Chesham on the Metropolitan Line. The number of routes with a limited service has declined in recent years as patronage recovered from its early 1980s' low point. As there are now fewer restrictions to show, and remaining ones are now mainly indicated in the accompanying text rather than by special line markings.

Lines or services
The tube map exists to help people navigate the Underground, and it has been questioned whether it should play a wider role in helping people navigate London itself. The question has been raised as to whether main-line railways should be shown on the map, in particular those in Inner London. The Underground has largely resisted adding additional services to the standard tube map, instead producing separate maps with different information:
The maps showing all the National Rail routes provide useful additional information at the expense of considerably increased complexity, as they contain almost 700 stations. This makes them harder to read, even when A3 size.

Standard tube map. Underground, DLR, zone boundaries and a few National Rail lines.
Central London map. A cropped and enlarged version of the standard map showing only the central area. Some versions show Thameslink and Northern City Line services.
Travelcard Zones map. Underground, DLR, National Rail, Tramlink and zone boundraries.
High Frequency Services map. The same as the Travelcard Zones map except that lines offering services at greater than 15-minute intervals are de-emphasised so that the more frequent routes can be seen easily.
London Connections map. Produced by the Association of Train Operating Companies, this provides the same information as TfL's Travelcard Zones map but extends a little further beyond zone 6. The National Rail lines are emphasised by thicker lines and coloured according to their Train Operating Company.
Tube Access Guide. Indicates stations with full or partial step-free access suitable for wheelchair users.
Bicycle map. Underground and DLR only. Shows in green sections of the network where bicycles are permitted.
Real Time Disruption map. Underground and DLR only. Interactive web-based map with disrupted lines and stations highlighted, others in light grey.
Interactive journey map. Underground and DLR only. Interactive web-based map that can be used to access information about each station (e.g. bus connections and disabled access).

Saturday, November 24, 2007

Pacific Islander American
793,162 0.3% of the US population
Pacific Islander Americans are residents of the United States with original ancestry from the Pacific Islands. They represent the smallest racial group counted in the United States census of 2000. They numbered 874,000 people or 0.3 percent of the United States population. They are most concentrated in Hawaii, Alaska and to a lesser extent the West Coast, specifically California.


In politics
Pacific Islander Americans have media portrayal mostly as professional wrestlers, but are also portrayed as regular people too. The Rock, with a Samoan mother and a Black Canadian father, has been the most notable Pacific Islander American professional wrestler, branching out into movies like the The Scorpion King. Other Pacific Islander American professional wrestlers include Samoa Joe and Solofa Fatu. Lilo Pelekai and Nani Pelekai are Native Hawaiian Americans in the Disney show called "Lilo & Stitch". Pacific Islander Americans portrayed two major supporting characters on the CBS television series Hawaii Five-O—Native Hawaiian Zulu as Kono Kalakaua and Samoan American Al Harrington as Det. Ben Kokua. Also, Hawaiian-American Jason Momoa plays Ronon Dex on the popular science-fiction TV show Stargate Atlantis.
Vili Fualaau is a Samoan-American boy who made headlines with his controversial relationship with Mary Kay Letourneau.
The most famous stage character is Bloody Mary (South Pacific) of the South Pacific musical and movie. She is a souvenir trader to US Sailors stationed in the Pacific Theater of WWII. Though originally cast as Juanita Hall, an African American, she is often also cast as an Asian or Pacific Islander American in newer local productions.

Pacific Islander Americans are well represented in American football: Peter Tuipulotu, Reno Mahe, Vai Sikahema, Nuu Faaola, Jesse Sapolu, Troy Polamalu, Maake Kemoeatu, Mosi Tatupu and his son Lofa, Manu Tuiasosopo and his sons Marques and Zach, and Junior Seau are professional football players.
Many Pacific Islander Americans also play the most popular sport of their homeland, rugby, and have a strong influence in US rugby, with many going on to represent the USA, including Salesi Sika, David Niu, Vahafolau Esikia, Fifita Mounga, Olo Fifita, Thretton Palamo, Albert Tuipolotu, and Vaea Anitoni.
Pacific Islanders are also represented in sumo wrestling. Akebono Taro is a famous sumo-wrestling Yokozuna of Native Hawaiian ancestry.
Diving great Greg Louganis, although often identified with his adoptive Greek-American heritage, is of Samoan and Swedish ancestry.


Polynesian Americans are Americans of Polynesian descent.
Large subcategories of Polynesian Americans include Native Hawaiians and Samoan Americans. In addition there are smaller communities of Tongan Americans.

Pacific Islander American Population
A Samoan American is an American who is of ethnic Samoan descent and may be from either the independent nation Samoa or the American territory of American Samoa. Many Samoans live in Los Angeles, Carson, Long Beach, San Jose, San Francisco, Salt Lake City, Independence (Missouri), Houston, Seattle and in the state of Hawaii. Since the end of World War II, persons born in American Samoa are United States nationals, but not United States citizens. (This is the only circumstance under which an individual would be one and not the other.) For this reason, Samoans can move to Hawaii or the mainland United States and obtain citizenship comparatively easily.
Samoan American is a subcategory of Polynesian American.

Friday, November 23, 2007

Fish industry
The fishing industry is the commercial activity aimed at delivery of fish and other seafood products for human consumption or as input factors in other industrial processes. According to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) statistics the total fish production in the world in 2001 was 130 million tonnes. In addition to the commercial catches, 37.9 million tonnes were produced in aquaculture plants.
The fishing insustry comprises of the following chain:

Commercial fishing (fisheries)
Fish processing
Fish products sales Fish industry Fishing industry in Canada
The Manitoba commercial fishing industry is comprised of over 3,600 fisherpersons who produce 25 percent of Canada's freshwater catch. Lake Winnipeg is the biggest contributor of commercially landed fish species. Of the 13 fish species commercially harvested, pickerel (walleye), Sauger, lake whitefish, northern pike, yellow perch and lake trout are the most highly valued species. Others include white sucker, tullibee, carp, burbot, lake sturgeon, Goldeye and white bass.

Thursday, November 22, 2007

Iwo Jima LORAN-C transmitter
Iwo Jima LORAN-C transmitter was a LORAN-C transmitter at Iwo Jima, Japan of Grid 9970 at 24°48′8″N, 141°19′32″E. Iwo Jima LORAN-C transmitter had a transmission power of 4000 kilowatts, which is more than the most powerful broadcasting stations.
Iwo Jima LORAN-C transmitter had a 411.5 metre (1350 ft) tall guyed mast, which was built in 1963. It collapsed in 1965 at repair trial of a defective eyebolt of a backstage insulator. The collapsing tower killed 6 people and also destroyed the transmitter building. The tower was later replaced by a tower of same height. On September 29, 1993 the Iwo Jima LORAN-C transmitter was transferred from the U.S. Coast Guard to the Government of Japan. In 1994, the tranmitter was shut down, and its tower was demolished. The service is now provided from LORAN-C transmitter Niijima.

Wednesday, November 21, 2007

This is a list of literature, categorized by country, language, or cultural group.
Literature by country Abkhaz literature
Albanian literature
American literature

see also

African American literature
Native American literature
Southern literature
Arabic literature
Argentine literature
Armenian literature
Australian literature
Austrian literature
Azerbaijani literature
Babylonian literature and science
Basque literature
Belarus literature
Belgian literature
Bengali literature
Bohemian literature
Brazilian literature
Breton literature
British literature
Bulgarian literature
Canadian literature
Catalan literature
Chechen literature
Chinese literature
Cornish literature
Croatian literature
Cuban literature
Cypriot literature
Czech literature
Danish literature
Dutch literature
Egyptian literature
English literature

see also

Anglo-Norman literature
Anglo-Saxon literature
Anglo-Welsh literature
Esperanto literature
Estonian literature
Ethiopian literature
Finnish literature
Flemish literature
Francophone literature
French literature
Frisian literature
Galician literature
Georgian literature
German literature
Greek literature
Hebrew literature
Hindi literature
Literature of Hong Kong
Hungarian literature
Icelandic literature
Ilokano literature
Indian literature
Irish literature
Israeli literature
Italian literature
Japanese literature
Jèrriais literature
Kannada literature
Kashmiri literature
Kurdish literature
Korean literature
Latin literature
Latvian literature
Lithuanian literature
Luxemburger literature
Macedonian literature
Malayalam literature
Maltese literature
Manx literature
Marathi literature
Mexican literature
Moldovan literature
Montenegrin literature
Moroccan literature
Literature of Myanmar
Nepali literature
New Zealand literature
Nigerian literature
Norwegian literature
Occitan literature
Ossetian literature
Pakistani literature
Persian literature
Peruvian literature
Philippine literature
Polish literature
Portuguese literature
Provençal literature
Puerto Rican literature
Quebec literature
Romanian literature
Russian literature
Rwandan literature
Sanskrit literature
Scottish literature
Serbian literature
Singaporean literature
Siraiki literature
Slovak literature
Slovene literature
Somali literature
Sorbian literature
South African literature
Spanish literature

see also

Latin American literature
Swahili literature
Swedish literature
Swiss literature
Syriac literature
Literature of Taiwan
Tamil literature
Telugu literature
Thai literature
Turkish literature
Ukrainian literature
Urdu literature
Venezuelan literature
Vietnamese literature
Waray literature
Welsh literature
Yiddish literature
Yoruba literature
Western literature

Tuesday, November 20, 2007

This gallery of flags of Swiss cantons shows the flags of the 26 cantons of Switzerland.
Flags of Swiss cantons Appenzell Ausserrhoden
Appenzell Innerrhoden
St. Gallen

Monday, November 19, 2007

Sherborne School
Sherborne School is an English public school for boys in the town of Sherborne in north-west Dorset, England.


James Adams, cricketer
Hugh Bonneville, actor
Tom Bradby, TV journalist and author
Rt Hon Sir Christopher Chataway, athlete and politician
Charles Collingwood, actor
David Cornwell, (a.k.a. John le Carré) writer
Charlie Cox, actor
Cecil Day-Lewis, poet
Nigel Dempster, journalist
Jimmy Edwards, comedian
Sir Richard Eyre, film and theatre director, artistic director of the National Theatre 1988-97
Sir Michael Hopkins, architect
Jeremy Irons, actor
Stanley Johnson, politician
Robert Kitson, Rugby Union Correspondent, The Guardian
Anthony Lane, film critic
John Le Mesurier, actor
Colin Lucas, Master of Balliol and Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University until 2001.
Chris Martin, member of rock band Coldplay
Ian Messiter, creator of Just a Minute
King Mswati III, king of Swaziland
Keith Muspratt, World War One Flying Ace
George Miller, lawyer
Julius Neave, insurance executive
Alfred North Whitehead, mathematician
Peter Oborne, journalist, author and political commentator
Charles Palmer, engineer and survivor of the siege of Lucknow
Lance Percival, actor
Jon Pertwee, actor
Sir Alastair Pilkington, director of the Bank of England
James Purefoy, actor
Rt Rev Lord Sheppard of Liverpool, former England cricketer and Bishop of Liverpool
Sir David Spedding, head of the SIS
Alan Turing, mathematician
Alec Waugh, novelist
John Weston, diplomat Famous alumni

Five Old Shirburnians have been awarded the Victoria Cross, to whom a memorial plaque was commissioned, the unveiling of which took place in the School Chapel on 19th September 2004.

Rear Admiral Henry James Raby VC; (VC won in the Crimean War and at the time he was a Lieutenant in the Royal Navy (Naval Brigade))
Brigadier Charles Edward Hudson VC, CB, DSO & Bar, Military Cross; (VC won in the First World War and at the time he was a Temporary Lieutenant Colonel in the Sherwood Foresters)
Major Edward Bamford VC DSO; (VC won in the First World War and at the time he was a Captain in the Royal Marine Light Infantry)
Colonel Sir Arthur George Hammond VC, KCB, DSO; (VC won in the Second Afghan War and at the time he was a Captain in the Bengal Staff Corps, Indian Army)
Captain John Hollington Grayburn VC; (VC won in the Second World War and at the time he was a Lieutenant in the Parachute Regiment) Victoria Cross holders
Sherborne School is composed of 8 houses, where the pupils (invariably referred to as 'boys') live and work when not in lessons. The names of the houses, their distinctive letter, used in certain circumstances as an abbreviation, and current housemasters are:
Until 1999 there was another house, Westcott (h).
These houses also compete against each other in various sporting, educational and musical competitions.

School House (a) Peter Watts
Abbey House (b) Mark Pryor
The Green (c) Giles Reynolds
Harper House (d) Simon Tremewan
Wallace House (e) (formerly Elmdene) Giles Robinson
Abbeylands (f) Richard Bool
Lyon House (g) Patrick Francis
The Digby (m) (formerly the Digby Hotel) Martin Brooke

Sunday, November 18, 2007

Ubuntu (official IPA pronunciation /ùbúntú/(OO-BOON-TOO), often incorrectly pronounced /u'bʊntu/ in North America) is a predominantly desktop-oriented Linux distribution, based on Debian GNU/Linux but with a stronger focus on usability, regular releases, and ease of installation. Ubuntu is sponsored by Canonical Ltd, owned by South African entrepreneur Mark Shuttleworth; the name of the distribution comes from the African concept of ubuntu which may be rendered roughly as "humanity toward others", though other meanings have been suggested.

Ubuntu divides all software into four sections, called components, which is an officially recognised project to backport newer versions of certain software that are available only in unstable versions of Ubuntu. The repository is not comprehensive; it mostly consists of user-requested packages, which are approved if they meet quality guidelines.

Ubuntu (Linux distribution) Package classification and support
Further information: Linux distribution#Proprietary software
Ubuntu has a certification system for third party software. Ubuntu certified proprietary software should work well in Ubuntu. However, many programs familiar to users of non-free operating systems, such as Microsoft Windows, are incompatible and are not Ubuntu certified. Some proprietary software that does not limit distribution is included in Ubuntu's multiverse component.
Some examples of software not distributed by Ubuntu include:

Software that enables the playback of region-locked video DVDs, due to the questionable legal status of the DeCSS open-source DVD-decoding library in some parts of the world. (Note: the library is needed even when watching a DVD in the target region.)
Encoding and decoding libraries for many proprietary media formats such as Windows Media.
Some popular proprietary web-browser plugins, such as Adobe's (formerly Macromedia's) Shockwave (there is no Linux version) and Flash. (One workaround to the specific prohibition against redistribution in the Flash EULA is the multiverse package "flashplugin-nonfree" which automatically downloads the Linux Flash plugin directly from Adobe's site and then installs it.) Availability of proprietary software
Each release has both a code name and a version number. The version number is based on the year and month of release. For example, the very first release of Ubuntu, 4.10, was released on October 20, 2004.

There are several variants besides Ubuntu, both official and unofficial. Official ones such as Kubuntu, Edubuntu and Xubuntu are all free by mail order from ShipIt except Xubuntu. Variants
The Ubuntu page on has been the most frequently accessed of their comprehensive list of Linux distributions for more than a year,

See also

:Ubuntu addon CD ...Include codecs, plugins, java, xgl, games, brasero.